Stock listing – what it is, its levels, types and procedure

To attract capital into the business, the owners of the company use a variety of methods. One is the issue of equity securities that is, the shares. To begin trading on exchanges and for investors to purchase shares, they must go through a particular process to be granted access to listing and trading.

What’s an action strategy?

Listing guidelines – a standard for the inclusion of securities of a company in the exchange’s listing and the implementation of additional control on those securities. Rules for listings and conditions are set by the exchange itself. However, the rules that apply to the different platforms for trading might differ. The main regulations for the admission of organised trade to Russia are governed in accordance with Federal Law No. 39.

After listing the shares are traded via an exchange. Anyone can buy shares. If the business ceases to adhere to the rules and begins to face serious issues regarding the business or documents are not bought the company could be subject to being excluded from radiation titles, or the downgrading of the status of the company.

Registration levels

The primary obligations that the exchange faces is to create the public with a transparent and open atmosphere that allows investors to take part in trading on this exchange. To accomplish this, different types of levels are established. The higher the reference amount, the more reliable and appealing the business can be to make an investment in.


The reason why the stock exchange makes the announcements is so that they can gauge the company’s performance and its magnitude. This is why investors are informed of how risky it is when they invest in shares of a particular firm. It is vital to make sure that actions by the business are understood , and the choices taken by the company’s management are established.

Three different levels are offered by the Moscow Stock Exchange. The two first levels form the reference list. The companies which comprise it can meet the strictest standards. This third one isn’t assessed. It is composed of securities that meet the laws of the Russian Federation and the requirements of the Central Bank of Russia, but they aren’t examined through the internal exchange guidelines. They are considered to be more risky to put money into.

Listing of stock is a regular process. Specialists in the market for stocks study the efficiency and effectiveness of issuers across the globe. Based on their findings, they could modify their prices.

A drop in the value is not ideal to shareholders. This implies that it is crucial to find out the reason for the status change for the issuer or even refusing to buy their stock. The company may be in a negative position which could affect the image of the business. These are Moscow Stock Exchange requirements for various kinds of listed.

The first

The company must meet the basic requirements of complying in accordance with laws of Russian Federation, comply with the rules for the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and provide information on actions in accordance with Securities Law movables. The company should be at least three years old. It must also make financial statements and submit them according to IFRS for the past three years. If dividends are paidout, the terms for dividend policies need to be stated.

Based on the size of that the capitalization is, an issuer issue the number of shares required to allow free circulation. To calculate that, an exchange offers the formula for calculation. Liquidity, which is the amount of transactions in securities when the company is already on the market cannot fall below a specific threshold.

There are other corporate governance standards. For instance the existence of directors who are independent on the directors’ board, and an internal audit committee that is separate.

Companies that fall within the top tier of listing are known as the first level. These are the major companies in their respective industries and the nation’s economy: Gazprom, Sberbank, Lukoil.


The organizations at this level are in the second rung. In this case, issuers have to adhere to all legal requirements and must disclose important information about their business. However, their time of existence may be shorter starting at 1 year. IFRS reporting is also limited to a single year. There are fewer requirements on the quantity of cash as well as corporate management. Examples: Cherkizovo, Akron, KAMAZ.


It also includes papers of third tier. To be able to access these levels, you need to follow the law as well as Central Bank standards, register your securities and provide information in accordance with the law.

What is the process for registering? function?

The exchange, which is the organizer of trading, determines the rules of acceptance into the market. They typically include some of the steps below:

  • A declaration on the listing procedure in addition to the registration for security on the list of listing.
  • Agreement concluded with the exchange of shares for the exchange’s expertise.
  • Public disclosure of important details of economic and financial activity.
  • Expertise, which assesses the performance of the issuer, which includes the indicators of profitability, such as the ratio of liquidity to the history of credit, the volume of issues and information about profits and income, debts and so on.
  • The findings of the test conducted by members of the Securities Admission Commission with representatives of the issuer. the decision is made , and the appropriate level is set.

SEO is a paid process. The company pays for the expense of evaluating and reviewing the application, and then is responsible for the maintenance of the list. The cost of inclusion depends on the value that the company claims to have, and the cost for maintaining the list is contingent on the value of its market capitalization.

Types of ads

Making preparations to join the market is not without expenses. The process is split into various stages, however it differs based on nature.

Main list. Also known as an initial offering it is the time the moment when an issuer goes publicly for the first time and issue outstanding securities. To make it happen the management has to improve its credit rating, changing their reporting systems to an International Standard (IFRS) and improving corporate governance.

A team is then formed to properly manage the whole process of release. A prospectus for the issue of securities is in the process of being prepared which is a report on the market to be targeted and the operations. Reports on the period of time are released, and strategies for development as well as application of funds that are attracted are made public.

Following that, a tour is scheduled – in simpler terms, it’s an advertising campaign where managers meet with potential investors and present their important performance indicators. Then your order books are set into. It helps you determine the best amount of securities to issue as well as the values they can be expected to have at placing. This is all in conjunction with exchanges. Furthermore the date of market entry is accepted by the exchange.

List of secondary listings. The issue of shares is on a different trading floor. In this case, the company is publicly traded and its securities can be traded at a specific stock exchange. To attract additional investors, typically from overseas jurisdictions the company releases its papers through a different exchange.

List of specialization. By this arrangement, the assets won’t be available to the general market. Only a few investors will be able to purchase these assets.

Scoring mechanism

A company can list securities in various ways, which split the listings into different kinds:

  • Direct – the placement of shares on an exchange.
  • Double – putting its shares on two exchanges that aren’t associated. In general, a company places their securities with one exchange and immediately starts issuing securities on another.
  • Custodian: the company that issues deposits on certificates. This tool permits investors from all countries to use their funds without limitations when dealing with stocks listed through the stock exchange in another country. It’s actually an official certificate of ownership for securities that are issued on an international market. In another sense, they are referred to as certificates of deposits as well as secondary shares.
  • Cross-listing is when certain exchanges may interact with one and each other. So, if a business would like to sell assets on the exchange, it will go through a complete listing on one exchange and then has the option of trading on the secondexchange, though it is already necessary to complete a listing through the simplest way.

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